Wednesday, December 15, 2021

Polyphenolic compounds in blueberries

Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites, which are produced in the shikimic acid of plants and pentose phosphate through phenylpropanoid metabolization. They contain benzene rings, with one or more hydroxyl substituents, and range from simple phenolic molecules to highly polymerized compounds.

It is known that these compounds have important antioxidants, exhibit antiglycemic, antiviral, anticancer and antiinflammatory activities and antiallergic and antimicrobial properties.

Plant phenolics are considered to have a key role as defense compounds when environmental stresses, such as high light, low temperatures, pathogen infection, herbivores, and nutrient deficiency, can lead to an increased production of free radicals and other oxidative species in plants.

Blueberries are known as “longevity fruit” fruit because of their high antioxidant capacity against free radicals and reactive species, and are considered one of the largest sources of antioxidants among all fruits and vegetables. More recently, many other potential health benefits have been found that are unrelated to antioxidant capacity. These benefits include reduced incidence of the major modern diseases cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer

The plant has been reported contain a complex of antioxidant and antimicrobial molecules—more precisely, polyphenol compounds—with a wide range of anthocyanins.

Blueberry had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW).

It is well documented that blueberries are rich in phenolics, particularly such as ellagic, gallic, ferulic, catechin chlorogenic and quercetin. Catechin is another important phytochemical of flavonoids found in fruits.

The formation and accumulation of bioactive compounds in the fruits are influenced by several factors, such as genotype, environmental conditions, ripeness, and storage. Moreover, phenolic compounds are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, and their content changes rapidly under the influence of stress.

Study shows that blueberry leaves contain a much larger amount of polyphenols than fruits,5 but no anthocyanins have been found in fresh green leaves.
Polyphenolic compounds in blueberries

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